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A book by Rich Van Winkle

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An Amazing Life: Jesus and the Nozerim

Appendix XIV - Characters

 

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O  

 P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

(Jump to alphabetical group by clicking on a letter)

 

Links in black are to the Endnotes.

Links in red are to family trees are in the Endnotes.

Links in blue are to other appendices in this book.

Links in orange are to outside sources.

 

AAAAAAA

 

Abihud bar Nahor of Capernaum

Child of: Nahor

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Nazorean (2-46) I once had some problems with his brother (Zebedee; 2-52).

 

Achim bar Azor – leader of the Mt. Carmel Nazoreans and member of the Nozerim Council

Child of: Azor

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: (3-22)

 

Alexander III Helios (also Heli ben Mattat):

Child of: Mattat ben Levi and Alexandra II

Spouse of: Anna (her 1st marriage)

Parent of:  Mary; Grandfather of Jesus

Sibling of:  Unknown, apparently none as Anna moved in with her uncle.

Note: Executed by Herod ~23 BCE.

 

Alexander the Alabarch[1], (Tiberius Julius Alexander Major or elder)

Child of: Onias?[2]

Spouse of: Philo of Alexandria

Parent of: Tiberius Julius Alexander and Marcus Julius Alexander

Sibling of:  Julius Lysimachus

Note: Alexandrian Jewish aristocrat – cousin of Joseph of Mormorica/Arimathea

 

Alexandra II (Elizabeth/Esther of Jerusalem): Queen of Judah (49-40/37 BCE)

Daughter of: John Hyrcanus II and ??

Wife of: 1. The first wife of Mattathias (Mattat ben Levi - the Nasi of Israel); Alexander II (her cousin) and King of Judea; and Antigonus, last of the Hasmonean Priest – Kings.

Mother of: Alexander Helios III and Princess Alexandra III (via Mattathias); Aristobulus III (the 58th High Priest), and Princess Mariamme I, 2nd wife of Herod (via Alexander II); and Antigone, 2nd wife of Antipater III (via Antigonius).

Siblings: Aristobulus

Note: Would go on to marry the Hasmonean king (her cousin), Alexander II and then became Alexandra II, the Queen of the Jews. A good friend of Cleopatra VII

 

Alphaeus -

Child of: Melchi – one of the founders of the Council.

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Tolmay

Sibling of: 

Note:

Amram the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Dinai, Eleazar, Tahina, Zakkai, and Doras

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 

Amram the Zealot

Child of: Anthronges (Prince)

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Alexander the Zealot - father of Aimar

Sibling of:  Theudas, Hanibas, Dinai, Perisha

Note:  Prince Aimar was apparently the last of the Pelatiahite Line

 

Ananelus/Hananeel – the Oniad who accepted Herod’s High Priesthood

Child of: Boethus?/Onias V?

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Replaced shortly by Antigonus III, then reinstated as HP.

 

Anaxilaus of Larissa

 Child of: ?

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  ?

Note: A physician and Pythagorean philosopher. Banished from Rome by Augustus (28 BCE) for practicing magic (he produced effects attributed to magic).  Anaxilaus wrote about the properties of minerals, herbs, and other substances (from which he derived drugs). Cited by Pliny. (Euseb., Chron. ad Olymp. clxxxviii; St Iren. i. 13; Plin. xix. 4, xxviii. 49, xxxii. 52, xxxv. 50.)

Andrew the Apostle of Bethsaida (Greek: manly, brave, from νδρεία, Andreia, "manhood, valour"; Hebrew Andrai; Aramaic Andraus)

Child of: Jonah/John/Johan and ??

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Simon Peter

Note: Originally a follower of John the Baptist and lived in Capernaum. “If you know Johan of Bethsaida, then you know my father because I know of no other by that name in our village and if you are related to Zebdi, then we are related because one of my uncles is married to Salome’s sister.” (2-39).

Anna, Anne (or Hannah): Jesus’ grandmother

Daughter of: Yehoshua III (HP) and ??

Wife of: Alexander Helios III and later Joachim

Mother of: Mary

Sisters:  Sobe (mother of Elizabeth, wife of Zacharias) and Salome (wife of Zebdi)

Brothers: None

Note: Aunt of John the Baptist.

 

Ananelus (see Hananeel) – 55th HP

 

Annas the 65th High Priest (6-15 CE)

Child of: Seth/Sethus

Spouse of: Unknown (Nathanial)

Parent of: unknown daughter > married Caiphas

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:  High Priest 6-15 CE. Father-in-law of Joseph Caiaphas (18-36 CE.)

 

Anthronges (Pelatiahite Prince) the Zealot (aka “The Shepherd”)

Child of:

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Theudas, Hanibas, Amran, Dinai, Perisha

Sibling of: 

Note:  Leader (with Simon V of Perea) of the rebellion in 4 BCE that took Herod’s Palace and held the diadem (crown) until Anthony showed up and beheaded him.

 

Antigonus II (Antigonus II Mattathias)

Child of: Aristobulus II and ?

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Alexander II

Note: His first attempt, in 42, to seize the government of Palestine by force with the assistance of his brother-in-law, Ptolemy Mennei (see Alexandra [Salome]), was defeated by Herod, but in the course of two years he succeeded in attaining his object. (JE) He sent his uncle Hyrcanus II to Babylon in chains (after biting off his ears). In 37 BCE, Antony had Antigonus scourged and bound to a stake (crucified). (Cassius Dio's “Roman History”).

 

Antipas – see Herod Antipas I

 

Archelaus – see Herod Archelaus I

 

Arsinoe[3]: Cleopatra’s sister

Child of: Ptolemy XII Auletes and Cleopatra V Tryphaena  or Berenice IV (most likely)

Spouse of: Menneus

Parent of: Ptolemy bar Menneus

Sibling of:  Cleopatra VII

Note: A mysterious figure who ruled Egypt at one point. Cleopatra had Antony order her execution on the steps of the Temple of Artemis (in Ephesus) in 41 BCE. She supposedly had a strange/special relationship with the eunuch Ganymedes ?

 

Arsenoe the Disciple (See also Arsinoe)

Child of: unknown

Spouse of: Unknown (Nathanial)

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Selene, “the cousin”

Note: Appears in both the First Apocalypse of James and the Psalms of Heracleides (Manichean) as a follower of Jesus (along with Mary, Martha, and Salome)[4]. Thus, probably related to Jesus.

 

Arsinoe the princess

Child of:  

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:

 

Arsinoe the bride of

Child of: 

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:

 

Arsinoe Selene of Alexandria

Child of:  Chelkias ben Ananias, HP at Leontopolis, and Mariamne III dau Aristobulus IV

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Niece of Alexander the Alabarch

 

Azor bar Zerubbabel of Magdala

Child of:  Lucas, the son of a Roman soldier, and a Kittim whore.

Spouse of:

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Miryiam (shared mother)

Note: (2-46)


BBBBBBBB

 

Bannus bar Nobeus of Qumran

Child of: Nobeus of Damascus

Spouse of: None

Parent of: None

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Honi’s disciple

 

Barabbas/Bar Rabba – Aramaic Bar-Abba, meaning “son of father”  or Hebrew “the son of the teacher”.

Child of: unknown

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:  Mt 27:16. See also Barsabbas

 

Barnabas - English for Aramaic Bar-Nabba, meaning “exhorter” or “consolation.”

Child of: unknown

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Companion of Shaul, and possible writer of the book of Hebrews. Ac 4:36.

 

Barsabbas - English for Aramaic Bar-Sabba, meaning “son of Sabba” or “son of the father” (Greek Barsabbas; Latin Barsabban). Also called Joseph and Justus. Acts 1:23,15:22.

Child of: 

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Possibly a reference to Joses, brother of Jesus.

 

Bartholomew - English for Aramaic Bar-Talmai, meaning “son of Ptolomy” (Greek Bartholomaios; Latin Bartholomeus).

Child of: 

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: One of the Twelve Apostles/Emissaries. Mt 10:3. Also associated with the name Nathaniel

 

Bartimaeus - English for Aramaic Bar-Timai (Greek Bartimaios; Latin Bartimeus) meaning “son of Timai” (or Timaeus).

Child of:  

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Mk 10:46.

 

Benei-Regesh (Boanerges) - meaning “sons of thunder,” “sons of rage/tumult,” or Benei-Rogez “sons of anger.”

Note: A nickname for the brothers James and John (sons of Zebedee) . Mk 3:17, 9:38, Lu 9:5.

 

Berenice – from the Egyptian princess

Child of:  Alamyos, the Governor of Judea from 50-47 BCE (an Onaidite)

Spouse of: Phabet (High Priest)

Parent of: Joachim, Simar

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:

 

Berenice (Herodian princess)

Child of:  Herod Agrippa I and Drusilla II (Egyptian princess)

Spouse of: Agrippa II (her brother)

Parent of:

Sibling of:  Agrippa II

Note:

 

Berenice V (Herodian princess)

Child of:  Herod III Phaesalus and

Spouse of: James bar Jacob

Parent of: ??

Sibling of: ??

Note: Niece of Philus, the nephew of Cleopatra VII

 

Boaz – white-haired caretaker of the “white house”

Child of: 

Spouse of: Eppy his dark-skinned Ethiopian wife

Parent of: None

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: (3-37)


CCCCCCCC

 

Chelkias ben Ananias - the Kohen Gadol of On.

Child of:  Ananias bar Onias V

Spouse of: Penuel

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Cousin of Honi (Onias) of Magdala

 

Chuza -  Herod’s minister of finances

Child of: 

Spouse of: JoAnne

Parent of: unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note:

 

Cleopatra VII:  Queen of Egypt

Child of: Ptolemy XII Auletes and Cleopatra V Tryphaena (best guess)

Spouse of: First, with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married due to custom. Later, she married Mark Anthony, but had children by Julius Caesar before that marriage.

Parent of: Caesarion, Alexander Helios, Ptolemy, Selene (others?)

Sibling of:  Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV

Note: Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII, joint monarchs. She antagonized Herod of Judaea, by far the ablest, richest, and most powerful of the "protected" sovereigns, or "client kings," of Rome. Herod and Antony were old friends; but in the year 40 BCE, after Antony's departure, Cleopatra unsuccessfully tried to seduce Herod on his way through Egypt. Cleopatra never forgave him for the rebuff. She went much further: when she and Antony were reunited she persuaded him to give her large portions of Syria and Lebanon and even the rich balsam groves of Jericho in Herod's own kingdom. But Antony refused to sacrifice Herod wholly to Cleopatra's greed, whereupon she hated Herod more than ever and even interfered in his unhappy family affairs by intriguing against him with the women of his household.

In 34 BCE Antony celebrated a fantastic triumph in Alexandria. Crowds beheld Antony and Cleopatra seated on golden thrones, with their own three children and little Caesarion, whom Antony proclaimed to be Caesar's son, thus relegating Octavian, who had been adopted by Caesar as his son and heir, to legal bastardy. Cleopatra was hailed as “Queen of Kings”, Caesarion as “King of Kings”. Her son Alexander Helios was awarded Armenia and the territory beyond the Euphrates, his brother Ptolemy the lands to the west of it. The boys' [twin?] sister, Selene, was to be ruler of Cyrene.

Cleopatra of Jerusalem  or Cleopatra Ourania  (“Heavenly”)

Child of: Mark Anthony (or less likely, Julius Caesar) and Cleopatra VII

Spouse of: Jacob ben Mattat (executed in 23 BCE); Simon ben Boethus –HP (23-21 BCE), Herod’s 5th wife (21 BCE).

Parent of: Joseph; Herod two sons: Herod Philip II (b. 22 BC/21 BC - 34) who later became Tetrarch of Ituraea; Herod III (b. 24 BC/23 BC).

Sibling of:  Caesarion, Alexander Helios, Ptolemy XV Philadelphus, Selene II

Note: A reputed posthumous daughter of Egyptian Queen Cleopatra VII who was conceived in Rome by Julius Caesar in his official estate in Rome just prior to his assassination in 44 BCE by Brutus and Cassius.  Cleopatra of Jerusalem was about 13 years of age when her mother, Queen Cleopatra VII and her lover, the Roman Triumvir Mark Antony both died by suicide in 31 BCE. She was three weeks short of her 13th birthday when her brother, Caesarion, was strangled at the order of Octavian, who said, “there was not enough room for two Caesars in the Roman Empire”. She was brought by Jerusalem Patriarch Jacob ben Mattat to Judea where she became his wife (from then on, she was known as Cleopatra of Jerusalem) and the talk of the Jerusalem social elite.  In 23 BC Herod had Jacob "killed for sedition" and "gave" Jacob's wife to the High-Priest, Simon ben Boethus, while, in the same year Herod took Miriamne II, Simon's daughter, as his own 3rd wife. Then, just two years after that marriage, Herod "took" this Cleopatra of Jerusalem as his 5th wife, having, in the interval, also married the Samaritan wife Malthrace. Thus, at 25 years of age, she had had 5 sons with three different husbands. Cleopatra bore Herod two sons: Herod Philip II (b. 22 BC/21 BC - 34) who later became Tetrarch of Ituraea.

Herod (b. 24 BC/23 BC), of which very little is known.

Cleopatra’s children by Herod were raised and educated in Rome. After the death of her husband in 4 BC, her second son inherited some of his father’s dominion and ruled as a Roman client king until his death in 34 CE. Cleopatra became the mother-in-law of Philip’s wife and niece Salome. Philip and Salome had no children.

Crescens - the Essene/Nazorean from Mt. Carmel (see Silvanus)


DDDDDDD

 

Dinai the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Eleazar, Amram, Tahina, Zakkai, and Doras

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 

Dinai the Zealot

Child of: Athronges

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Eleazar the Zealot

Sibling of: Theudas, Amran, Hanibas (Annibas), Perisha

Note:  Grandson of a founder of the Nozerim Council of the same name.

 

Doras the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Dinai, Amram, Tahina, Zakkai, and Eleazar

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 


EEEEEEEEE

 

Eida the healer

Child of: Timothy of Alexandria

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note:  Her hair was a beautiful golden color, her eyes were a brilliant blue, and she was tall and lithe. When she looked at you, you felt as though she knew everything there was to know about you. (3-35)

 

Eleazar the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Dinai, Amram, Tahina, Zakkai, and Doras

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 

Eleazar the Zealot rebel , (see Hezekiah and Simon bar Giora).

Child of: Dinai bar Athronges

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Moshi the Zealot (executed in 60 CE)

Sibling of:

Note:

 

Eli: Hebrew for Aramaic Heli. See Heli.

 

Eliud bar Echim – John’s uncle (aka “Lucius”)

Child of: Echim the priest

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: Zecharaias

Note:  (3-12) Nazorean, cousin of Linus, Council

 

Elizabeth/Esther of Jerusalem - see Alexandra II

 

Elizabeth of Bethlehem also known as Isabel, Isabella, Isabelle Elisheva (Hebrew) /Greek Elisabet:

Child of: Yeshoah III (HP) / Eleazar and Sobe (3-11)

Spouse of: Zecharias (Priest)

Parent of: John the Baptist

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: According to St. Hippolytus, Sobe was the mother of Elizabeth and Anne, the mother of Mary, so Elizabeth is Mary’s cousin. In the Quran, she is Mary’s aunt.

 


FFFFFFFFF

 


GGGGGG

 

Gamaliel grandson of Hillel

Child of: Simeon bar Hillel

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: The grandson of Hillel who taught at the school of Hillel, then center of Pharisaic Judaism, and was president of the Sanhedrin during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. Saul of Tarsus was a student of Gamaliel. Gamaliel is quoted in Acts (5:35) as counseling a moderate, calm, and cautious attitude toward the followers of Yeshua.

 

Glaphyra – the princess of Greek, Armenian and Persian descent.

Child of: Roman Client King Archelaus of Cappadocia

Spouse of: Herod negotiated with a marriage alliance Archelaus (above) and in 18 BCE Glaphyra married Alexander (Herod’s first child with his wife Mariamne I). She later married King Juba II of Mauretania (as his second wife after the Queen of Mauretania, Cleopatra Selene II widowed him in 6 CE.

Parent of: Glaphyra bore Alexander two sons: Tigranes and Alexander (and a child whoce name is unknown).

Sibling of:  She was the older sister of Archelaus of Cilicia.

Note: Her paternal grandmother was also named Glaphya.  She was a royal pain in the butt. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaphyra

 


HHHHHHH

 

Halfai (Alphaeus)-- From the Greek Alphaios (Aramaic Khalfai; Latin Alphei). Mt 10:3.

 

Hanna – Jesus’ aunt and step-mother

Child of:

Spouse of: Klopas (Joseph’s brother)

Parent of: Their daughters were grown and gone (unnamed).

Sibling of: sister-in-law of Mary

Note: A second mother to Jesus, James, Joses, Salome, and Miriyam. (Later, Mary would have two more sons through Klopas: Simon and Jude).

 

Hananeel the Egyptian (aka Ananelus) – (55th HP)   

Child of: Onias…

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Boethus (56th HP)

Sibling of: ?

Note: Reputed as one of the HPs who sacrificed the Red Heifer.

 

Hanan of Damascus (hazzan of the Essene synagogue)

Child of:

Spouse of:  

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Keeper; neighbor of Apama and Rascus

 

Hananiah (Ananias) Meaning “Yah is gracious.”

Child of:

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: - One of the members of the Messianic Synagogue at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Shappirah to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately died after he had spoken the falsehood (Acts  5:5). Also ,a messianic at Damascus (Acts 9:10).

 

Hannah/Anna (Aramaic Khanna)

Child of:

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Also a prophetess. Lu 2:36.

 

Hanan – hazzan of Essene synagogue in Damascus

 

Havah/Eve (Greek Eua(n): Latin Hava(m)), meaning “living, life, life-giving.”

Child of: God

Spouse of: Adam

Parent of: Cain and Abel…

Sibling of:  none

Note: Also called the “Mother of All Living” (Hebrew em kal hay) Gen. 3:20; 2 Co 11:3; 1 Ti 2:13.

 

Herod the Great

Child of: Antipas bar Herodes of Ascalon and Cypros (Edomite)

Spouse of: At least 10 wives including Doris, Mariamne I,

Parent of: Numerous… His four sons inherited his Kingdom: Philip who had Ituraea and Trachonitis, Antipas who had Galilee and Perea, and Archelaus who had Judea and Samaria.

Sibling of:  Salome (older sister)

Note: First appointed tetrarch of Judea by his Idumaean father Antipater, and later king of Judea about 37 BCE when he sacked Jerusalem. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which began about 20 BCE but was uncompleted at the time of his death. A Census, registration, or oath of loyalty to Augustus was undertaken to be finished before Feb 5, 2 B.C.E. in the 13th consulship of Augustus. This was probably the enrollment mentioned in Luke 2:1. Herod died soon after a lunar eclipse, most likely in 4 BCE. (See separate article, below).

 

Herod Agrippa I

Child of: Grandson of Herod the Great

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:. He became tetrarch beginning in 40 CE and then king from 41-44 CE. He put the emissary Jacob the elder to death, and put Peter into prison (Lu 3:1, 23:7 Ac 12:1-19).

 

Herod Agrippa II

Child of: Agrippa I

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:  The Emperor Claudius gave him the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem in 48 CE, and later was made king of Judea  and was governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Ac 25:13 26:2,7) It was before him that Paul was delivered in 59 CE (Ac 26:1 ). Though a Jew in religion, he was entirely devoted to the Romans, and sent 2000 men to support Vespasian during the Jewish Revolt.

 

Herod Antipas I –

Child of: Herod the Great and Malthace (the Samaritan)

Spouse of: Antipas divorced his first wife Phasaelis (daughter of the Nabatean King Aretas IV) to join with Herodias who was married to his brother Herod Philip I.

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Archelaus, half brother of many

Note: He was a willed successor of Herod and became tetrarch of Galilee and Perea. In most NT references to “Herod”, the reference is to Antipas. He ordered John the Baptist killed and was involved in the “trial” of Jesus. 

 

Herod Archelaus ( Latin name) (Aramaic Arkhilius; Greek Archelaos)

Child of: Herod the Great and Malthace (the Samaritan)

Spouse of: Mariamne (per Josephus), likely Mariamne III dau Aristobulus, who he divorced to marry Glaphyra, the widow of Archelaus' brother Alexander (though her husband, Juba, king of Mauretania, was still alive).

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Herod Antipas

Note:  Became king of Judea, Samaria and Idumea after Herod’s death. Mt 2:22. Deposed and exiled in 6 CE.

 

Herod III Phaesalus

Child of: Herod the Great via Cleopatra of Jerusalem

Spouse of:

Parent of: Berenice

Sibling of:  Herod Antipas and many others

Note:

 

Herod Philip I[i]

Child of: Herod the Great

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of:  Herod Antipas and many others

Note:  Became tetrarch of Perea after Herod’s death. Mt 2:22.

 

Herod Phillip II

Child of: Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Ruled from Herod’s death until the 22nd year of Tiberius (~ 36 CE). He ruled Ituraea, Trachonitis, Batanea and Auranitis. Lu 3:1.

 

Hezekiah bar Simon – messianic candidate

Child of: Simon of Kinneret, Nozerim

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:  Known as a “hothead” and extremist (2-21).

 

Hezekiah the Zealot – “Rabbi Ezekias”

Child of: Mattat (Matthan) ben Eliezar

Spouse of:  ?

Parent of: “Judas of Gamala”

Sibling of:  Jacob (father of Joseph, father of Jesus)

Note: Revolutionary aligned with Simon bar Giora and Eleazor ben Simon. Killed by Herod in 44 BCE.

 

Hillel the Great (Hillel Hazaken) – Nasi of the 4th Zugot pair (with Shammai)[5]

Child of: Gamliel (?)

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Simon (who assumed the leadership over the Pharisees until 25 CE)

Sibling of:  Shebna (merchant)

Note: Pharisee, was still alive and busy writing and teaching during Jesus’ time - at least until the year 10 CE. (2-9).

 

Honi – the Elder

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Member of Nozerim Council

 

Honi (Onias) of the Magdala Synagogue

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Cousin of Chalkis, High Priest of On

 

Honiyya ben Ananias – the Moreh Tzedek at Qumran

Child of: Ananias bar Neyhonya bar Onias V bar Onias IV

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:  Chalkis

Note: (2-14)

 

 

 


IIIIIIIIIIIIIII

 

Ichabod - hazzan of the Nazorean Synagogue

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: (2-43)

 

Immanuel - Meaning “with us is God” or “God with us.” Mt 1:23.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Isaac of Cana – the Essene (3-25)

 

Iscariot (Judas) Possibly meaning “man of Kriot,” or “from Skriot.”

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Kerioth or Kriot was a city in the Negev (Jos 15:25).

 


JJJJJJJJJJJJJ

 

Jacob - Hebrew Ya'akov. Found in the Greek NT as Iakob, Iakobo, Iakobos, and Iakobon; traditionally translated as James.  Latin Iacomus. In the Latin Vulgate it is Iacobo, Iacobus, Iacobi, and Iacobum. (Aramaic Yacob).

Child of: Joseph and Mary

Spouse of: Berenice dau Herod III Phaesalus

Parent of: ???

Sibling of:  Jesus, Joses, Simon, Judas…

Note: Nazirite priest, aka “the Just”.

Jacob – the patriarch, member of the Nozerim Council

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of: Joseph et al.

Sibling of: 

Note: Nazirite

Jairus - Latin for Hebrew Yair (Aramaic Yu'arash; Greek Iaeiros).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:  Ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus healed. Mk 5:22; Lu 8:41.

 

James the Apostle of Bethsaida – see Yacob

 

Joachim , step-father of Mary

Grand-Child of: Alamyos, the Governor of Judea from 50-47 BCE (an Onaidite)

Child of: Phabet and Berenice

Spouse of: Shelam, Anne/JoAnna (levirate)

Parent of: Shari, Shlomit, Mary (step daughter)

Sibling of:  Yehoshua III, Mariamme,  Simar

Note: Temple Priest, Sepphoris then Jerusalem.

 

Joanna

Child of:

Spouse of: Chuza, Herod’s steward or a superintendent in Herod's household.

Parent of:  

Sibling of: 

Note: Luke 8:1-3 Jesus continued according to plan, traveled to town after town, village after village, preaching God’s kingdom, spreading the Message. The Twelve were with him. There were also women in the company who had been healed or various evil afflictions and illnesses: Mary, the one called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out; Joanna, wife of Chuza, Herod’s manager; and Susanna – along with many other who used their considerable means to provide for the company.

Joanna is mentioned just briefly in the passages in Matthew 28:1-10, Luke 8:1-3 and Luke 24:1-25; however, the importance of her role in Jesus' daily life could be described as immeasurable. In Luke 8:1-3 she appears as one of the women who had been healed, either of a sickness or of an evil spirit, but there is no specific mention of her malady. She contributed financially to Jesus' ministry, and may well have provided for more mundane things such as clothing or sandals or meals. In the last mention of Joanna, in Luke 24:10, she is one of the women who went to the sepulcher to embalm the body of Jesus, and she was among the group of women to whom He appeared at the resurrection. It was Joanna and the other women who later told the apostles that Christ had arisen.

 

Johanan bar Zecharias – John the Baptist

Child of:  Zecharias the priest and Elizabeth

Spouse of: none

Parent of: none

Sibling of:  none

Note: See Appendix XI

 

Johanan ben Zakkai

Child of:  Zakkai the priest

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Meets Jesus at Jerusalem Temple with Gamaliel ben Simeon.  Johanan was several years older than Jesus and a disciple of Hillel’s.

 

John the Apostle of Bethsaida - see Yohanan

 

John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), Jewish king in 67 and from 63-40 BCE

John - the Baptist

Child of:  Zacharias and Elizabeth

Spouse of: none (Tavita)

Parent of: none

Sibling of:  none

Note: Jerusalem, Qumran, Jordan, Jericho

 

Joseph – leader of the Nozerim Council

Child of:  Heli, the Zadokite

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note:

 

Joseph the Nozerim, Nazorean, Rechabite, Essene

Child of:  Jacob bar Matthan ans Assia

Spouse of: Melcha (at 14), Escha (Melcha’s sister at 40), Mary (at 44).

Parent of: Jesus, James, Jude, Joses, Junia, Judith, and Lydia

Sibling of:  Klopas (Ptolas), Uzziah, Esther and Salome (wife of Zebedee)

Note: Jerusalem, Qumran, Jordan, Jericho

 

Joseph of Arimethea

Child of:  Matthat and Simor/ Levi and Anne

Spouse of: Rehab

Parent of: Lazarus, Martha, and Mary

Sibling of: Jorim, “Heli” ben Matthat

Note: Nozerim, Nazorean, Rechabite, Essene wealthy merchant Arimethea/Ramatha

a bouleutes, literally, "a senator" or member of the Sanhedrin, provided tomb for Jesus.

 

Joses Ισης, Iōsēs, 'Joses', a Greek variant of 'Joseph'

Child of:  Joseph (aka Barnabas from the Aramaic בר נביא, bar nayā, meaning 'the (son of the) prophet')

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: He sold all his goods and gave the money to the apostles in Jerusalem, they gave him a new name: Barnabas. Acts 4:36 explains the name as υός παρακλήσεως, hyios paraklēseōs, meaning "son of consolation" or "son of encouragement".

 

Joshua ben Perachya – Nasi and one of the second Zugot pair.

Child of:  Perachya

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Paired with Mattai of Arbela/Galilee as the second Zugot (who were exiled in Egypt from 88-76 BCE) during Alexander Jannæus’ persecution of the Pharisees. (The Yeshu mentioned as a student of Joshua in Sanhedrin 107b and Sotah 47a was likely the same as Jesus bar Pantera). "Get thee a teacher; win thee a friend; and in judging incline toward the side of innocence" (Avot i. 6).

 

Joshua, the Rabbi of Gadara

Child of: 

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Friend of Hanan of Damascus; Keeper

 

Judas of Gamala - a Gaulonite Zealot (a Hasmonean), perhaps also Judas Saripheus (Zipporai)

Child of:  Hezekiah

Spouse of: ??

Parent of:  Judas Saripheus (Zipporai) ? (2 sons killed in revolt, 5 survived); John, the first born, Simon, James the Greater, Judas (not Iscariot) James the Less, Menahem (killed in 66 CE at Jerusalem), and Eleazar (led the Masada group).

Sibling of:

Note: “…taking with him Sadduc, a Pharisee, became zealous to draw them to a revolt, who both said that this taxation was no better than an introduction to slavery,...Judas and Sadduc, who excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries, by this system of philosophy..."–Josephus, "Antiquities," XVIII:1:1.

Joses – of the Council

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Judah - Hebrew Yehudah (Aramaic Yehuda; Greek Ioudas; Latin Iudas). In the Greek NT traditionally translated variously as Judah, Judas, and Jude.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Julia – the Emperor’s wife

Child of: Emperor Augustus (his only biological child) and Scribonia (born on the day of their divorce)

Spouse of: In 25 BCE, at the age of fourteen, Julia married her cousin Marcus Claudius Marcellus who died two years later. In 21 BCE Julia married Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (25 years her senior) and began a series of alleged adulteries. In 11 BCE, she became the second wife of the Emperor Tiberius (also her step-brother) in a marriage arranged by Augustus[6]. He put her into exile in 2 BCE[7].

Parent of: With Agrippa: Gaius Caesar, Vipsania Julia (also known as Julia the Younger), Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Agrippina or Agrippina the Elder (mother of Emperor Caligula), and Marcus Agrippa Postumus.

Sibling of:  none, step-sister of Octavian/Tiberias

Note: Also maternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and the Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother-in-law of the Emperor Claudius, and maternal great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero. In 16 BCE, Agrippa and Julia visited Herod in Jerusalem to much fanfare. See http://www.livius.org/jo-jz/julia/julia03.html .

Julie of Bethsaida

Child of: Zebedee and Salome (sister of Mary)

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: James the Apostle and John the Apostle

Note: Yacob called her Julia – see Tiberias


KKKKKKKK

 

Kefa - (Cephas) Aramaic meaning “a stone.” The name given to Simon son of Jonah by the Messiah.

Kuza. Aramaic for English Chuza (Greek Chouzas; Latin Chuza)

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Klopas – brother of Joseph (See Ptolas)
LLLLLLLLLLL

 

Labbai - (Lebbaeus)-Aramaic meaning “flaming with fire.” The Greek means “courageous.” Mt 10:3. Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: One of the Twelve emissaries, also called Taddi (Thaddaeus) Mt 10:3 Mk 3:18. According to a tradition, Labbai is the same person as “Judah the son [or brother] of Jacob.” Lu 6:16

 

Lazarus - Latin for Hebrew El'azar (Aramaic Lazar; Greek Lazaros). Lu 16:20-25, Yo 11:1-12:17.

Child of: Joseph of Arimathea

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:  Martha and Mary

Note: Lazarus ben Joseph lived in Bethany, a village just east of Jerusalem. From Mormorica. Lazarus was five years older than Jesus.

 

Lebbaeus, see Labbai

 

Linus the Nozarean and Nozerim

Child of: (Eliud’s brother)

Spouse of:

Parent of: several

Sibling of: 

Note: Cousin of Lucius, John the Baptist (13-3)

 

Lucius the Nozarean

Child of: Eliud

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Cousin of Linus

 

Luke (Aramaic Luqa; Greek Loukas; Latin Lucas) of Antioch

Child of: Lucius of Cyrene, the Emmaus disciple,

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Name of one of the synoptic gospels and purported author of Acts. A physician. Accompanied Saul of Tarsus on several journeys. He was highly educated, well traveled, well connected, and extremely widely read.

 

Lydia dau Joseph – sister of Jesus

Child of: Joseph and Mary

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: Jesus, James, Joses, Simon, Jude, and Salome

Note:

 

 


MMMMM

 

Marcus – The Essene

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: (Cousin of Lucius, frined of Nicodemus) (4-35)

 

Mariamne I, Herod’s 2nd wife

Child of: Alexander Maccabeus (later Ptolemy bar Menneus) and Alexandra dau Alexander Maccabeus (eldest son of Aristobulus II)

Spouse of: Herod the Great (2nd) – 41-29 BCE

Parent of: Alexander, Aristobulus, Salampsio and Cypros

Sibling of:  Aristobulus III of Judea (HP)

Note: In 29 BCE, Herod had Mariamne executed after his sister convinced him that she had been unfaithful. He killed her two sons in 7 BCE, as well as her brother, her grandfather, and her mother. Her  son with herod was named Philip (a Macedonian name). Philip married Herodias (of John the Baptist fame) and had a daughter named Salome.

 

Mattai (aka Nittai) of Arbela/Galilee– one of the second Zugot pair (av beit din or vice-president of the Sanhedrin under Joshua ben Perachya).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Paired with Joshua ben Perachya as the second Zugot (who were exiled in Egypt from 88-76 BCE) during Alexander Jannæus’ persecution of the Pharisees. "Withdraw thyself from an evil neighbor; join not thyself unto the wicked; and renounce not the hope of retribution."

 

Mattathias ben Levi (aka Mattan)

Child of: Levi ben Eleazar

Spouse of: Esther (Elizabeth) Alexandra II of Jerusalem, Rachel of Arimathea (daughter Anna, sister of Jospeh), and Salome of Idumea (a Herodian princess who was also called “The Proselyte”).

Parent of: Heli ben Mattat who would be known as Alexander III Helios.

Sibling of: 

Note: A prominent priest in the Davidic line.

 

Menehem bar Judas: of Gamala

Child of: Judas of Gamala

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: Menechem, Eucharia (grandfather of Mathew Syrus)

Sibling of:  Zebedee

Note: Uncle of James and John; cousin of Aristobulus II

 

Magdalene Latin for Hebrew Magdalit (Aramaic Magdalith; Greek Magdalenos). Possibly meaning of the town of Magdala, which was near Tiberius on the coast of Galilee. In Syriac the root gdl means “to braid, twist”, and there is a tradition that this Miriam was called “Magdalene” because she braided her hair. Mt 27:56, etc.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Manaen  Menachem--“comforter”. Ac 13:1.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:  the foster brother of Herod.

Note: A “suntrofos” or courtier of Herod- (Acts 13:1). (Converted by Joanne?)

 

Manah (Menan)

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: In Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:31.

 

Mariamne III

Child of: Aristobulus IV (son of King Herod) and Mariamme I (or Bereniice)

Spouse of: Betrothed to Antipater II, her uncle, around 7 BCE and

Parent of:

Sibling of:  Herod of Chalcis, Herod Agrippa I, Aristobulus V, and Herodias

Note: Some think she was married to Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, after Antipater’s death in 4 BCE (whom he then divorced to marry Glaphyra).

 

Matthew (Mattithiah, Mattathias)--English for Hebrew Mattityah or Mattai (Aramaic Matti; Greek Maththaios; Latin Mattheum), meaning “gift of Yah.”

Child of: Halfai (Alphaeus)

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: A tax-collector at Capernaum. One of the Twelve emissaries (Mt 9:9). In 1Chr 9 Ezra 10 Neh 8, and in Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:26.

 

Matthiah - Hebrew for Matthias (Greek Matthian(s); Latin Matthiam; Aramaic Matyah)

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Chosen as an emissary in place of Judah Iscariot. Ac 1:23, 26.

 

Mattithiah

See Matthew

 

Miriam Hebrew for “Mary”. In the Greek NT the name is given variously as Maria, Marian, and Mariam (Aramaic).

 

 


NNNNNN

 

Nathaniel of Cana , the Apostle (also known under his patronymic Bartholomew”)

Child of: Tolmai

Spouse of: Unknown (Arsenoe)

Parent of: Unknown

Sibling of:  Unknown

Note: Generally associated with Philip. Other gospels note an association of Philip with Bartholomew,

Supposedly preached in India,  Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, and Armenia. Eusebius reports that St. Pantænus of Alexandria found in India a copy of the Hebrew text of the gospel of Matthew that Bartholomew had left there.

 

Nicodemus – (Latin) Hebrew Nakdimon (Aramaic Niqodemus; Greek Nikodemos), meaning “victorious”. Child of: Gurion

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: A Pharisee and member of the Sanhedrin who talked with Jesus privately at night. Both he and Joseph of Arimathea, another Sanhedrin member, put Messiah’s body in the tomb after the crucifixion. Yo 3, 7, 19. (2-52). House/villa in Capernaum along lake

 

Nicolas of Damascus, Herod’s Council (“Philos” was his official title) and an advisor, administrator and ambassador for Archelaus.

Child of: Menneus (?)

Spouse of: Unknown

Parent of: Unknown

Sibling of:  Ptolemy (Ant. 17.9.4; 225; 14.14.3; 377). Uncle of Mariamne I, Herod’s 2nd wife.

Note:  Josephus relied heavily on the works of Nicolas of Damascus (Nicolas' 144 book universal history): Also authored tragedies and philosophical works.  Defended Jewish rights in Ionia before Marcus Agrippa (Ant. 16.2.3-4; 31-57).

 

 


OOOOOO

 

Onias IV

Child of: Onias III (44th HP)

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Ananias (exiled HP); (Great) Grandfather of Hananeel (55th HP)

Sibling of:  ?

Note: Should have been the 47th HP. Antiochus V Eupator had his father exiled and later executed but Onias escaped and was granted asylum by Ptolemy in Egypt where he built a Temple at the Nome of Leontopolis (172 BCE).

 

Onias VI

Child of: ?

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  ?

Note: Teacher of Righteousness (Qumran)?

 

Onias bar Zakkai – member of the Nozerim Council

Child of: Zakkai of Bethlehem in Galilee

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  ?

Note:
PPPPPPPP

Pantera, Tiberius Iulius Abdes – the Roman soldier who may have fathered Jesus

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of: Jesus?

Sibling of:

Note: An archer of the Cohors I Sagittariorum stationed in Judea until 9 CE. His tombstone was found in Bingerbrück, Germany in 1859 adding to speculation which arose from a statement by Celsus quoted by Origen in “Contra Celsum”: “when she (Mary) was pregnant she was turned out of doors by the carpenter to whom she had been betrothed, as having been guilty of adultery, and that she bore a child to a certain soldier named Panthera.” This may have originated from a story regarding a different (prior) Jesus: “Mary, who had been betrothed to a man named John, was seduced by her neighbor, Joseph ben Pantera. When she discovered she was pregnant, John left her and went to Babylon. When Jesus was born, she tried to pretend he was the son of John and even attempted to give him a Jewish religious education…” (from the Toledot Yeshu - Joseph from the gospel s seems to have been merged with Pandera from the Tosefta)[8].

Parmenas – member of the Nozerim Council

Child of: Tobias

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Parmenas was not a Rechabite and his family was more Hellenized than most orthodox Jews cared for. On the other hand, he was a cousin of Chelkias, a student of Philo, and a good friend of Honi.

 

Penuel (Phanuel)-Meaning “face of God” (Aramaic Panuel; Greek Phanouel; Latin Phanuhel).

Child of:

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note:

 

Perisha the Nazorean

Child of: Athronges

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Tahinas “Asida”

Sibling of: Theudas, Amran, Hanibas (Annibas), Dinai

Note:

 

Philo[9], (aka  Julius Philo, Philo of Alexandria, Philo Judaeus, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, Yedidia, "Philon", and Philo the Jew) - Hellenistic Jewish Biblical philosopher from Alexandria.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: Alexander the Alabarch and Lysimachus.

Note:  Through Alexander, Philo had two nephews: Tiberius Julius Alexander and Marcus Julius Alexander (the first husband of the Herodian Princess Berenice).

 

Philus, the nephew of Cleopatra VII

Child of: ?

Spouse of: ?

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Uncle of Berenice V

 

Philo of Alexandria– Jewish philosopher

Child of: Gaius Julius Alexander (Lysimachus) in Alexandria of Egypt (Onias descent)

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Gaius Julius Alexander (II) Acts 4:6 – a relation of the High Priest Annas (Ananus/Ananius).

Note: Uncle (?) of Ananias son of Honias a leading General under Cleopatra II & III and (another) Gaius Julius Alexander who was appointed by Rome as Alabarch (Governor) of all the Jews in Alexandria.

 

Pontus Pilate (Greek Pontios Pilatos; Latin Pontio Pilato) - Roman governor of Judea from 26-36 CE

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Prochorus bar Manean of Mt. Carmel– member of the Nozerim Council (3-22)

Child of: Manean bar Alphaeus (the Essene spy in Herod’s Court)

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:  

Note: Had lived with Manean’s brother in Cana, the brother-in-law of Tolmay, and was raised as a Rechabite. His great-grandfather Melchi had been one of the Nozerim Council’s founders.

Ptolemy bar Menneus (aka Ptolemy Mennei):

Child of: Menneus and Arsinoe (Queen of Egypt)

Spouse of:  Alexandra dau Hyrcanus II

Parent of: (Step father of) Mariamne I -2nd wife of  Herod "The Great"; Aristobulus (16 year old HP); Alexander; others.

Step-Sibling of:  Nicholas (of Damascus)

Note: In 42 BCE, he assisted Antigonus II (his brother-in-law) in his first attempt to seize power in Judea. When the Hasmonean Prince Alexandros II was beheaded in 48 BCE, Ptolemy married Alexandra II (regent) and became step-father to Mariamne and Aristobulus (HP).

 

Ptolas (aka Klopas) – Jesus’ paternal uncle

Child of: Jacob bar Mattai

Spouse of: Escha

Parent of: Arsinoe and Selene

Sibling of:  Joseph

Note: house close to the Praetorium


QQQQQQ

 

Quinctilius Varus – see Varus

 

RRRRRRRR

 

 


SSSSSSSSS

 

Salome dau Joseph – sister of Jesus

Child of: Joseph and Mary

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: Jesus, James, Joses, Simon, Jude, and Lydia

Note:

 

Saul / Sha'ul / Paul / Paulos of Tarsus: “Asked (of Yah)”  a Pharisee of the tribe of Benjamin

 Child of:

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of: ?

Note: a student of Gamaliel, whose teaching can be seen in Saul’s constant use of known Hillelian Hermeneutics. Saul first persecuted the disciples of Messiah until his vision of Messiah on the way to Damascus. Known writer of 13 letters in the B'rit Hadasha.

 

Shappirah (Sapphira)—

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Acts 5:1.

 

Shlomit (Salome) - Hebrew for Greek and Latin Salome (Aramaic Shalom)

Child of:

Spouse of: Zebedee

Parent of: James and John,

Sibling of:  Anna and JoAnne

Note: Mk 15:40 16:1

 

Shoshanah (Hebrew for Susanna, Aramaic Shushan; Greek Sousanna) meaning “Lily” or “rose”.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Lu 8:3.

 

Silvanus – the Essene/Nazorean from Mt. Carmel

Child of: Achim

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Joined with his cousin Crescens (3-35)

 

Simon the High Priest in Jerusalem

Child of: Boethus

Spouse of:

Parent of: Mariamne II who becam Herod’s third wife - no sons.

Sibling of: 

Note: Simon was HP from 23-5 BCE. Given the fact that Herod re-built the Jerusalem Temple during this period (20-10 BCE for the actual Temple), we get some idea of this High Priest’s status.

 

Simeon (aka Shimon) - a Pharisee scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin (c. 103-76 BCE) & (c. 76-67 BCE)

Child of: Shetach and ?

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Alexandra I

Note: Colleague of Joshua ben Perachya and Judah ben Tabbai in the Sanhedrin. Abolished Sadducean “penal code” and started the school movement of the Pharisees. Exiled in Egypt during Alexander Jannæus’ anti-Pharisee period. He is therefore called "the restorer of the Law," who "has given back to the crown of learning its former brightness". His rulings regarding divorce were part of Jesus’ teachings. (See Kiddushin 66a and Megilas Ta'anis 10).

 

Simon bar Giora the Zealot rebel ,(see Hezekiah and Eleazor ben Simon).

Child of: Giora, the rebel

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Simon bar Yehuda from Kerioth – member of the Nozerim Council

Child of: Yehuda the Nazorean Zealot

Spouse of:

Parent of: Judas

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Simon bar Hillel

Child of: Hillel Hazaken

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: Gamliel

Sibling of:

Note:

 

Simon of Kinneret member of the Nozerim Council

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of: Hezekiah bar Simon

Sibling of: 

Note: Died soon after Jospeh

 

Solon – Tabitha’s grandfather (3-18)
TTTTTTTTT

 

Tahina the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Eleazar Dinai, Amram, , Zakkai, and Doras

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 

Theudas the Nazorean

Child of: Athronges

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of: Amran, Hanibas (Annibas), Dinai, Perisha

Note: One of the 70

 

Taddai - Hebrew for English Thaddaeus (Greek Thaddaios; Latin Thaddeus), see Labbai

 

Tavita - Aramaic for Greek Tabitha (Latin Tabitas).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Woman in Joppa whom Kefa raised from the dead. Ac 9:36,40.

 

Thaddaeus, see Labbai

 

Theophilis

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Person written to by Luke (Greek Theophilos; Latin Theophile; Aramaic Tawfeela). May have been the High Priest of Jerusalem of that name in 37-41 C.E. He was a Sadducee (Tzeduk). Lu 1:3.

 

Thomas - Latin and Greek for Hebrew T'oma (Aramaic Tooma).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: One of the Twelve

 

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus - Roman Emperor (14 BCE to 16 March 37 CE)

Child of: Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla (step-son of Octavian)

Spouse of: Julia – a promiscuous and adulterous wife

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Suetonius tells lurid tales of Tiberias’ sexual perversity, cruelty, and paranoia.

 

Timaeus -Latin for Hebrew Timai (Aramaic Timi; Greek Timaios).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: Mk 10:46.

 

Timothy the Therapeutae from Alexandria

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of: Eida – seeming as old as her father.

Sibling of: 

Note: (3-35)

 

Todah (Theudas)

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:  see Ac 5:36

 

Tolmei - one of Zebedee’s cousins

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of: Nathaniel

Sibling of: 

Note: Manager of the onshore fishing fleet at Bethsaida (2-57).

 

Tolmay of Cana

 Child of: Alphaeus bar Melchi  (a founder of the Council).

Spouse of: Betrothed to Mary

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: A cousin of Joseph, not a member of the Council, but part of the brotherhood and an important worker in its cause.


UUUUUU

 

VVVVVVV

 

Valerius Gratus - Judean procurator.

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: Tiberius replaced Annius Rufus with Gratus in 15 CE (succeeded  by Pontius Pilate in 26 CE). Gratus was fundamentally corruptible and sold the High Priesthood to different contenders six times in four years.

 

Varus,  Quinctilius

Child of: Sextus

Spouse of: Vipsania Marcella, the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Claudia Marcella Major

Parent of: Quinctilius Varus by his second wife Claudia Pulchra

Sibling of: 

Note: In  8 BCE he was appointed Governor of Syria (arriving in 7 BCE), with four legions (III Gallica, VI Ferrata, X Fretensis, and XII Fulminata) under his command. After the Jewish revolt in 4 BCE, he crucified over 2,000 Jews and was subsequently recalled to Rome. His successor in office is a mystery.

 

 

WWWWW

 

 

XXXYYY

 

Yaakov (Jacob), grandfather of Jesus

Child of: Mattat

Spouse of:

Parent of: Joseph

Sibling of:

Note: the first Abuidite Prince of Israel, as a descendant of Zerubabbel’s 1st Babylonian wife who became the “Nasi” and Patriarch of Jerusalem by the appointment of King Herod and served between the years of 32 to 23 BCE.

 

Yaaqov – James the Apostle of Bethsaida

Child of: Zebedee and Salome (sister of Mary)

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: Yohanan (John he Apostle) and Julie (who he called Julia as in Tiberias’ wife)

Note: the family jokester.

 

Yehoshua ben Gamla (aka Joshua ben Gamaliel) the 88th High Priest

Child of: Gamaliel

Spouse of: Martha (Boethus) – one of the richest women in Jerusalem

Parent of: ?

Sibling of: ?

Note:  Finally established the public school system in Judea (following the goals of Simon ben Shetah). "The name of Yehoshua ben Gamla is to be blessed, for without him the Torah would have been forgotten from Israel" - Talmud, Bava Basra 21a. Josephus described him as an intimate friend (Life, 204).

 

Yehoshua III the 59th High Priest (36-23 BCE)

Child of: Boethus (56th HP)

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: JoAnna, Elizabeth, Hanna (Mother of Mary)

Sibling of:  Eliam, Ishmael 66th HP, Jospeh II (Cabi) 78th HP

Note: Grandfather of Jesus

 

Yehoshua IV the 64th High Priest (4BCE)

Child of: Seth/Sethus/Sie

Spouse of: ?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of:  Ananus

Note:

 

Yeshua the Nazorean (Greek Iesou)

Child of: Joseph and Mary

Spouse of: Mary Magdalene?

Parent of: ?

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Yochanah (Aramaic Yokhan; Greek Ioanna; Latin Iohanna)

Child of:

Spouse of: Chuza, the steward of Herod

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note: a follower of Yeshua (Lu 8:3 24:10; Yo)

 

Yochanan the Baptist (Johanan, John) meaning “Yah is Gracious” (Aramaic Yukhanan; Greek Ioannes; Latin Iohannes)

Child of: Zecharias and Elizabeth

Spouse of: none

Parent of: none

Sibling of:  none

Note:

Yohanan – John the Apostle of Bethsaida

Child of: Zebedee and Salome (sister of Mary)

Spouse of: Yaffa from Chinnereth

Parent of:

Sibling of: Yaaqov (James the Apostle) and Julie

Note: He spoke the best Greek and worked in Decapolis

 

Yochanan (also “John”) bar Jacob of Cyprus

 Child of:

Spouse of: none

Parent of: none

Sibling of:  none

Note: Qumran – John’s friend and follower

 

Yohanan (John) I Hyrcanus: Hasmonean king

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 

Yosi (Joses)- Shortened form of Joseph (Aramaic Yosea, Yoseh; Greek Ioses; Latin Ioseph). 1. One of the half-brothers of Yeshua (Mt 13:55 27:56 Mk 6:3 15:40, 47) 2. A Cypriot Levite surnamed Barnabas (Ac 4:36).

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of: 

Note:

 


ZZZZZZZ

 

Zacchaeus - Latin for Hebrew Zakkai (Aramaic Zachai; Greek Zakchaios), which is short for Zechariah. Lu 19:2,5,8.

 

Zakkai the Elder  - Founder of the Nozerim Council along with Dinai, Amram, Tahina, Eleazar and Doras

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: 

 

Zakkai - an older friend who knew the Jerusalem Temple

Child of:

Spouse of:

Parent of:

Sibling of:

Note: A friend from the Egyptian caravan returning to Galilee (2-2).

 

Zebdi /Zebedee of Bethsaida, Capharnaum/Capernaum English for Hebrew Zavdai (Aramaic Zawdee; Greek Zebedaios; Latin Zebedaei).

Child of: Judas of Gamala (Jacob?)

Spouse of: Salome – sister of Mary

Parent of: Apostles James & John; Yochanan/Johanan, Jacob, and Julie (Johanan and Jacob were older than Jesus and Julie 1 year younger)

Sibling of:  Menehem

Note:  Zebedee owned a small fishing fleet in Galilee (Mark 1:20). See Abihud

 

Zechariah the priest (also Zacchaeus in Latin, akin to Zakkai) of Bethany

Child of: Echim

Spouse of: Elizabeth

Parent of: John the Baptist

Sibling of: Eliud

Note: 

 

Zud, the donkey mare from Damascus

Child of: unknown

Note: She never made an ass of herself.

 

 


Family Trees: (I'll have to capture these are pictures)

Mary’s Paternal Bloodline…

                                   

                                                                                                                                Jannai[10]

                                                                                                             (via unknown wives)       

                                                                                                        ___________|_____________       

                                                                                                       |                                                            |

                                                                                                Melchi [11]                                        Theophilus             

                                                                                     ______ |____________ __________

                                                                                     |                                 |               |                  |

                                                                                  Levi                          Jacob    Jonathan    Tolmai

                                                                    |                                  |                                     |

                                                                           Matthat[12]      Joses                          see below                  

                                                       ____________|________________________          

                                                 /                                              |                                    \

                                                  /                                                            |                                        \

                           (m. Rachel of Arimathea)                  (m. Alexandra II[13])                          (m. Salome of Idumea)

         _____________|_________                          _______|________                              ___|______

        |             |                 |  |                              |                                  |                                   |            |          |

   Anna      Joseph    Zebedee      Honi            Aristobulus III   Alexander Helios[14]           Gjor     Jesse    Elpis

                                 (m. Salome)  (m. Zibiah)                                         (m. Anna)                        |                (m. Herod)

                                ____|_____           ___|________                                |                             Simon V          

                                |        |          |         |           |            |                                Mary                                   

                       James  John  Jediah    Achim  Mattat  Judas             (m. Joseph)                                                                                                                                                           (m. Eskha)                                                                               

 

Mary’s Maternal Bloodline…

 

 

Boethus (from above)                                                                    Jannai (via unknown wives)

                |                                                                                           _____________|___________________       

                |____??_____Simon                                                |                                                                                  |

Phabet (Fabi)                                                      Melchi (“Elam” = Mute)[15]                              Theophilus    |____??_____ Mariamme                                __________ |_________ ____________

                |                          (m. Alamyos)                         |                        |                      |                            |

 Yehoshua III                          |                                   Levi                  Jacob           Jonathan         Tolmai

               |                               Joachim                                |                        |                                                   |

______|_________                                              Matthat            Joses                                      Zecharias

|              |                                          _____________             |__________                                    (m. Elizabeth) 

Jane   Elizabeth  (H)anna              |                              |                        |                                                  

                                      |          Joseph (Arimathea)  Jorim   “Heli” ben Matthat                            

                    |_____________________________(m. Hanna)                                                                                                                                                                                     |                                                   

                                                                                                                     Mary

Joseph’s Paternal Bloodline[16]

                                                                             Matthan ben Eliazar    

                                                                     __________|____________                 

                                                             /                                                                 \

                                                             /                                                    \

                                          (m. Hazibah)                                                            (m. Tirzah)

                                 ________|___________________                                         ___|________

                                |                   |                     |                      |                             |                           |

                           Junia           Jacob[17]     Hezekiah[18]     Menahem[19]      (below)                           Milcha         

                                         (m. Salome)              |                        |                                                    |

                                                    |                    Judas              Matthan                           Rachel (of Arimathea)  

                                             Joseph                   |                        |                                    (m. Matthat ben Levi)

                                 _______|_______     Simon          Eleazar                          _______|________

                                                                 |                                                                     |                   |                  |

                (m. Hanna)                    (m. Mary)                                        Anna       Joseph     Zebedee

     _______|________                        |

     |                 |                |             _____|_______________________________(m. Clopas)______

Melkha     Eliezar     Eskha        |            |             |              |            |              |           |                   |

                                                      Jesus      James     Joses    Salome   Simon    Lydia        Judah   Miriyam (Hasia)

                                                                                                                                                                    |

                                                                                                                                                                 Joses[20]                                                                                                                                                                                       _____|______

                                                                                                                                                     |                            |          

                                                                                                                                                Zoker                     Yacob

 

From Mary’s maternal bloodline, above…

 

                                                                                Tolmai bar Melchi                                                                                

                                                                                   (m. Rhebecha)

                                 _________________________|_______________________                                               

                                 |                              |                      |                        |                                  |     

                            Ruth                     Zecharias            Simeon            Phedra                Janna

                        (m. Honi)             (m. Elizabeth)      (m. ??)        (m. Alphaeus)      (m. Jonas)

                ______ |______                 |             _____|______           |                         |      

                |              |             |              |            |           |            |          |             JoAnna

            Elias       Levi     Jannai           |       Martha  Mary  Lazarus    |           

          (m. ??)  (m. ??)                        John                                   ______|________

                 |               |                                                                         | |                  |

                 ?              ?                                                                    Tolmai    Tobias          Tubal

 

More detail from Joseph’s paternal bloodline, as above…

 

                                                                                Matthan ben Eliazar

                                                                                         (m. Tirzah)                                                                

                                                                                _______|________

                                                                                |                                    |

                                                                         Shielatiel                     Milcha                  

                                                                ______                |                        ____|___________          

                                                                |                                        |                                       |

                                                              ??                       Rachel (of Arimathea)      Terezah   

                                                                                         (m. Matthat ben Levi)                                                 

                                                                      ______________|___________________      

                                                                     |                |                      |                                       |                                    

                                                                Anna        Joseph           Zebedee                        Honi                

                                                                                                        (m. Salome)                 (m. Zibiah)        

                                                                                                     ______|_____               _____|_________

                                                                                                    |               |           |            |                |              |

                                                                                                James    John    Jediah     Achim     Mattat    Judas                  

                                                                                                                                                                           (m. Eskha)

And with his second wife…

 

 

                                                                                Matthan ben Eliazar

                                                                                         (m. Hazibah )                                                                           

                                                                                                     |

                                                                                                Jacob

                                                                                        (m. Salome)

                                                                      ____________|___________

                                                                     |                            |                          |

                                                                 Joseph               Ptolas                Clopas     

                                                             (as above)       (m. Escha)       (m. Ophel) -------------  (m. Mary)

                                                                                           ___|___             ____|____                             |

                                                                                          |               |           |                    |                      (as above)

                                                                                   Arsinoe    Selene    Philip          Jezer

 

 

 

Joining Mary’s maternal bloodline – as above…                                                                                               

 

                                                                Onias (the line of legitimate High Priests)

                                                                                                    |

                                                                                                 ????

                                                                                                Shem   

                                                                                                    |

                                                                                            Honaseh

                                                                                ________|________

                                                                                |                   |                  |

                                                                        Alamyos       Tamar      Japheth

                                                   (m. Mariamme dau Phabet)     ____|______                 

                                                                                |                              |                        |   

                                                                                |                         Emmanuel       Silas

                                         _______________|_________                                |

                                        |                    |                  |                  |                                Zeru

                                Joachim        Escha     Salome   Mary Salome    (m. Anna of Arimathea)

               (m. Jane dau Yehoshua)

 

 

 

(Escha married Ptolas, one of the brothers of Joseph, Salome married Zebedee,  Mary Salome, married Clopas, Jospeh’s other brother).

 

 

 

The Hasmoneans (Maccabees):

 

 

 (on to Herodians)

 

 

 

 

The Herodians (reduced)…

 

 

See http://mysite.verizon.net/chuckwolfram/herod/i0000027.htm#s2 and PDF

 

The Herodian dynasty produced a large number of seemingly impressive women. However, it is not always clear whether these women were really impressive or whether their literary portrayal made them so. We know that Nicolaus of Damascus, who was Herod’s court historian, was deeply interested in domestic affairs and assigned to women a diabolical role in the turn of events. Even after his writings ceased, other court historians adopted some of his rhetorical techniques. We today know almost everything about these women from Josephus, who used Nicolaus and other sources in his writings.

Some of the more impressive Herodian women have a separate entry in the Encyclopedia and their names appear in capital letters. The women marked in boldface will be discussed alphabetically below. The matriarch of the Herodian dynasty was Cyprus (I), Herod’s mother. She had one daughter—SALOME (I)—and many daughters-in-law. The wife of Pheroras, her youngest son, was an impressive woman, who, alas, remains nameless. Herod was married ten times. We know the names of eight of his wives—1. Doris; 2. MARIAMME (I) the Hasmonean; 3. Mariamme (II) daughter of Simon the High Priest; 4. Malthace—a Samaritan; 5. Cleopatra of Jerusalem; 6. Elpis; 7. Pallas; and 8. Phaidra. He had many sons and daughters and daughters-in-law. His son by Mariamme the Hasmonean—Alexander—married a foreign princess, Glaphyra, daughter of Archelaus, King of Capadocia. The other son—Aristobulus—married his cousin Berenice (I), daughter of Salome. The couple had three sons among them Agrippa I, who became king, and one daughter, Herodias. From her first marriage to her cousin Herod, son of King Herod and Mariamme (II) daughter of the high priest, Herodias bore Salome (II). Mariamme the Hasmonean also bore Herod a daughter—Shelamziyyon—who married her cousin Phasael (II) and gave birth to Cyprus (II), who then married Shelamziyyon’s cousin, King Agrippa I. They had a son—Agrippa II—and three daughters: BERENICE (II), Drusilla and Mariamme.

Berenice (I) was the daughter of SALOME (I) and her second husband, Costobarus. Sometime after 17 B.C.E. she married Aristobulus I, Herod’s second son by Mariamme the Hasmonean. According to Josephus, this was not a happy marriage, since Berenice assisted her mother in spying on her husband (see under SALOME). By inference we may learn that after the execution of her husband in 7 B.C.E. she moved with her family to Rome, where she found a congenial atmosphere for her children’s upbringing within the imperial court. Her special friend was Antonia, Mark Anthony’s daughter and the future Emperor Claudius’ mother (Ant. 18:164). This is perhaps the reason why Strabo, the geographer and historian, found it necessary to mention her in passing (Geographic 16:46).

 

Cyprus (I). Herod’s father, Antipater the Idumean, was the son of forced converts who became Jews during the reign of John Hyrcanus (135–104 C.E.). His acceptance of Judaism seemed to have been syncretistic and cosmopolitan. His marriage to Cyprus, the daughter of a Nabatean aristocrat, is proof of this. The issue that interests scholars most about Cyprus is the extent to which her foreign extraction influenced Herod’s Jewish or non-Jewish identity. This question is motivated by the matrilineal principle that governs Jewish identity today. The issue was of no interest to Josephus. His only comments about her, aside from genealogical references, depict her as an active ally of her daughter Salome in their pursuit to the death of Herod’s wife, Mariamme the Hasmonean (e.g. Ant. 15:80; 184–185).

 

Cyprus (II). Like her husband King Agrippa I, Cyprus too was King Herod’s grandchild. Yet all the details we know about this woman’s life are connected with her marriage to Agrippa and the assistance she rendered him when he was young and poor. Thus we hear that she managed to avert her husband’s desperate, suicidal mood by writing to his sister Herodias, who was the wife of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee at the time, and thus securing employment for him (Ant. 18:148). This shows that Josephus imagined a network of connections between women (and cousins) who could maneuver their men-folk and influence the political scene. Finally, when her husband was short of money and had to escape his debtors under cover, Cyprus used her charms to secure a loan for him from Alexander, the alabarch (chief magistrate) of the Jewish community in Alexandria (Ant. 18:160). This is the last we hear of her. Since this story contradicts another one, where it seems that the loan was granted to Agrippa by Antonia, the Emperor Claudius’ mother (Ant. 18:164), one scholar suggested that it is not historical, and that Josephus used Cyprus to create a dichotomy between a good wife—Cyprus—and a bad one—Herodias.

Doris was King Herod’s first wife, whom he married before he aspired to the throne and married a Hasmonean princess. She bore him one son—his firstborn, Antipater (Ant. 14:300). When Herod married the Hasmonean he divorced Doris and sent her away (Josephus, BJ 1:432). After Mariamme’s execution, and Antipater’s renewed favor with his father, Doris was recalled to court (BJ 1:451). However, with the intrigues and plots that plagued Herod’s court toward his death in 4 B.C.E., Doris together with her son was implicated, and while Antipater was executed, Doris was once against banished from court (Ant. 17:68).

Drusilla (38–79 C.E.) was the youngest daughter of King Agrippa I. Her first betrothal, arranged by her father, to Epiphanes, prince of Commagene fell through in 44 C.E., with her father’s death, when she was only six years old (Ant. 18:355). Josephus further relates that she was later married to another foreign royalty, Aziz, king of Emesa , only to divorce him when courted by the Roman governor of Judaea, Felix, the Emperor Claudius’ freedman (Ant. 20:139, 141). She is usually mentioned in the literature in order to draw attention to the fact that all of Agrippa’s daughters initiated their own divorce. One interesting detail which Josephus adds is that she and her son Felix both died at Pompeii, in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 C.E. (Ant. 20:144).

 

Glaphyra. This Capadocian princess was related to the Herodians only by marriage. The wife of Alexander, Herod’s first son by MARIAMME the Hasmonean, she bore him two sons. Josephus uses her presence in the Herodian court in order to describe how her obvious royal lineage caused jealousy among the lesser-born Herodian princesses (Ant. 16:193). With her husband’s execution in 7 B.C.E., she returned to her father’s court and married King Juba of Mauritania in north Africa. However, after his death she returned to the Herodian court when Archelaus, Herod’s son by Malthace the Samaritan, proposed to her (Ant. 17:349–351). Josephus finds it necessary to condemn this match, since Glaphyra had had children by Alexander and was thus, according to Jewish law, forbidden to his brothers. Whether Glaphyra ever bothered to endorse any aspect of Judaism is never stated. Her offspring by Alexander, however, while they served as kings of Armenia, relinquished any Jewish connection (Ant. 18:140).

Herodias, King Agrippa’s sister is immortalized in the New Testament as the femme fatal who instigated the execution of John the Baptist. According to Josephus, she was first married to her uncle Herod, son of King Herod and Mariamme (II) daughter of the high priest. They apparently had one daughter Salome (II). Later, however, according to Josephus, a visit to her house by another uncle—Herod Antipas, son of Cleopatra of Jerusalem—made her abandon her husband in order to marry his brother (Ant. 18:110). This, according to the New Testament, was the reason for John the Baptist’s condemnation of Antipas’s rule (Mark 6:17–18; Matthew 14:3–4). Jewish law saw such a marriage as incest. Antipas had previously been married to a Nabatean princess, daughter of the Nabatean king Aretas. Their divorce led to war with the Nabateans. This war, according to Josephus, was perceived by the people as a punishment for the execution of John the Baptist (Ant. 18:116). The New Testament, however, sees John the Baptist’s death as much more directly connected to this woman: Herodias wanted this holy preacher dead and when her daughter won the favors of Antipas, who promised to grant her every wish, her mother persuaded her to ask for the Baptist’s head (Mark 6:21–28; Matthew 14:6–11). Although Josephus does not tell this story, he too seems to have known of Herodias’s evil reputation. He relates that she was jealous when her brother Agrippa became king, and persuaded her husband to go to Rome and demand a similar honor from the emperor, Caligula (Ant. 18:240–244). Instead, Antipas was exiled to Lyons in Gaul, where he eventually died. Herodias was thus directly responsible for her husband’s downfall. As a final act of contrition, Herodias is described as choosing to accompany her husband into exile (Ant. 18:254–255).

Mariamme (II) was the daughter of Simon son of Boethus, the High Priest. After the execution of MARIAMME (I) the Hasmonean, Herod met Mariamme II and fell in love with her because of her beauty. In order that their social status match, he appointed her father—a certain nobleman of Alexandria, of priestly descent—to the high priesthood (Ant. 15:319–322). Mariamme bore Herod one son (his fourth), also designated Herod, who later married his niece Herodias. The tower built in Jerusalem, designated Mariamme, was probably thus named in her honor (BJ 5:170). However, Mariamme too fell out of favor toward the end of Herod’s reign. She was implicated in the plots surrounding his death and banished from court. Her son was passed over in the succession process (BJ 1:599).

Salome (II) was the daughter of Herodias and her first husband, Herod. It is thus surmised that she must be the young maiden who, according to the New Testament, danced before Herod Antipas on his birthday and won his favor, securing the execution of John the Baptist (Mark 6:21–28; Matthew 14:6–11). In the New Testament, however, she is never named, and some scholarship alerts us to the chronological difficulties inherent in this identification. About Salome, Josephus reports differently. He first relates her marriage to her old great-uncle Philip, and then, after his death, her second marriage to her younger cousin, Aristobulus (Ant. 18:136). This Aristobulus was the son of Herod of Chalcis, BERENICE (II)’s second husband, by his first wife. Since this Aristobulus eventually became king of Lesser Armenia (Ant. 20:158), Salome became queen. Her portrait was imprinted on coins minted in her kingdom, and she is thus the only Herodian woman whose image has survived from antiquity.

Pheroras’s Wife. This woman, who is one of the few Herodian women who remain nameless, was apparently an important character in Herod’s court, and was made of a different cloth altogether from other Herodian characters. Where Pheroras met her and who her forefathers were is obscure, although Josephus states that she was initially a slave. This, however, may be no more than an attempt to denigrate the woman in terms understood at the time as demeaning. That her lineage was improper emerges from the fact that Herod tried several times to sever his brother’s relations with her by offering him more suitable matches, including his own daughter. Pheroras declined, but when pressed he divorced his wife but brought her back (BJ 16:194–199). Her unique interests emerge from an episode in which she aided the Pharisees by paying a fine imposed on them, when they refused to take an oath of allegiance to King Herod (Ant. 17:42–43). This suggests that, unlike all other Herodian women (but like some Hasmonean ones), Pheroras’s wife had leanings toward the Pharisees. Despite Pheroras’s devotion to her, Josephus’s writings abound with innuendoes about her sexual promiscuity (e.g. Ant. 17:51). When Pheroras eventually died in mysterious circumstances, his wife was implicated in a poisoning plot. She then tried to commit suicide, but failed. Subsequently a discovery of the real culprits cleared the woman’s name (Ant. 17:62–63; 68–76). We hear nothing more of her.

 


End Notes…



[1] Head of the Jewish population.

[2] The Alexandrian alabarchs were likely descendants of Onias IV and may have included his sons - Hilkias and Ananias. See “Die judäischen Ethnarchen und Alabarchen in Alexandria” in MGWJ, Heinrich Grätz, Ed. (1986),  S. 209-224 cf “A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ”, Volume 2 by Emil Schürer,  pp. 279, fn 201.

[3] The famous Cleopatra’s younger half-sister and after she was murdered upon Anthony’s order while under the “sanctuary” of the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, her name became “popular”. Selene (as in the moon), became a popular name for girls.

[4] “Gospel Women: studies of the named women in the gospels” by Richard Bauckham, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002, p.238.

[5] See Appendix XIX

[6] Augustus held Patria Potestas over her until either the Pater Familias (Augustus died) or he emancipated her. Marriage usually had no effect on Patria Potestas.

[7] Seneca the Younger described her reputation for promiscuousness:"adulterers admitted in droves" and she was accused of selling herself by night in the Forum and even upon the Rostra. Once, when asked her secret for having affairs while bearing children resembling her husband, she stated that she took on new passengers only when the boat was already full. “Saturnalia” by Ambrosius Macrobius, II, 5, 9-10: "Numquam enim nisi navi plena tollo vectorem".

[8] See “The Illegitimacy of Jesus” by Dr. Jane D. Schaberg, Haper Rowe (1987) and http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_feminist_studies_in_religion/v021/21.1reilly.pdf

[9] For a complete discussion of Philo and his works, see http://www.iep.utm.edu/philo/ and “Philo-Judaeus of Alexandria” by Norman Bentwich, Kessinger Publishing, (2006).

[10] Probably Alexander Jannaeus, the Jewish king and High Priest from 103-76 BCE. While he provided the blood lineage, the true connection was through his wife, Alexandra of Jerusalem (Salome Alexandra) who became the popular regnant Queen when the hated Jannaeus died. Rabbinical legends state that she was the daughter of Setah Bar Yossei (Yossei Bar Yochanan) and that the Pharisee sage Simeon b. Shetah was her brother. She died in 67 BCE.

[11] Melchi was nicknamed “Elam” (“the mute”) and his disability prevented him from becoming the High Priest.

[12] Mattathias ben Levi (aka Mattan) was a prominent priest in the Davidic line who married three notable women: Esther (Elizabeth) Alexandra II of Jerusalem, Rachel of Arimathea (daughter Anna), and Salome of Idumean (a Herodian princess who was also called “The Proselyte”). Mattathias and Alexandra II had a son named Heli ben Mattat who would be known as Alexander III Helios; the father of Mary. But Mary’s family also had roots along other prominent lines.

[13] This Princess  Alexandra was known as Esther (Elizabeth) of Jerusalem.

[14] Aka “Heli” ben Matthat

[15] Melchi was nicknamed “the mute” and his disability prevented him from becoming the High Priest.

[16] I realize that this seems meaningless if Jesus was either born of immaculate conception or under “suspicious circumstances”. Regardless, Joseph was Jesus’ “legal” father, step-father or adopted father.

[17] Jacob the Patriarch – an emissary to and for King Herod from around 32-23 BCE.

[18] Hezekiah the Zealot – father of Judas (captured and executed during the revolt in 4 BCE).

[19] Menahem, grandfather of Eleazar, a Jewish general in the revolt of 66 BCE.

[20] The name of Judah’s son is not known. We know Judah’s grandsons from Hegesippus and Epiphanius Monachus.



[i] In 34CE, shortly after the death of Jesus, Herod Philip’s reign came to an end and two years later, Herod Agrippa I, the nephew of Philip and Antipas, received the tetrarch of Batanaera and Trachonitis to the east of the sea of Galilee, formerly held by his uncle Philip. When Herod Antipas and Herodias tried to discredit Agrippa I, who was in favor with Emperor Caligula, they themselves were banished. Antipas’ tetrarch was passed on to Agrippa I in 39 CE. Then , after the assassination of Caligula in 41 CE, Agrippa’s support for Claudius was rewarded with the government of Judea, which had, since the banishment of Herod Archelaus, been ruled by Roman procurators. It was this Herod who is recorded as seeking to crush the Jesus movement and it was he who executed James bar Zebedee.

 

 



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